A computer numerical controlled router or CNC router works works within the same perameters on an CNC machine. That is to say that a computer that sues muerically controlled electronics to drive a mechanical system. Using this system you are able to achieve far more accuracy and precision than any human operation could ever do, just by operating from a computer monitor.
A conventional CNC router can cove and cut material in a three directional plane which are normally referred to the X,Y.and Z axis or directions, this schema is used for almost all computer or graphing systems. The X axis is normally although not always the longest of the three running front to back. The Y axis Runs from left to right most of the time although not always and the Z axis runs up and down. although it is possible to get the machine to violate these conventions through orienting the material differently or by changing the calibrations of material, but it is really adding way more work than you need and you’re not going to be doing yourself any favors by violating the norm in terms of learning from others put these conventions into your head and dont deviate you turkey. The machine is very effiecent in that they work in all three directions in a kind of perfect unison.
There are major componants now that need to be known if you are to progress in CNC routing. THey are the Y axis linear drive system which allows the routher to move along this plane traditionally from front to back of the machine. Next is the y axis gantry which is the differential space from the cutting bed or table. the cutting bed or table is what the material rests upon . the x axis linear drive system is a track that moves the y axis linear drive system and the system of them together allows the routher to move and hit any piont on that plane. the y axis gantyry allows for the z movement and cuts to take place by allowing the spindle to move and down from the ground to the top of the machine.
The CNC control and the computer as they relate to each other. The CNC control system of the computer is the heart of the machine. telling the motors to drive systems which allows the directional to move and how far to do so.
Setting up your cutting bed.
It is important that you use a thick, yet easily cut material for the base, because in calibration of the cut depth you are going to have a high degree of variance. therefore you want something such as a MDF or HDF particle board because your bit will pass over it easliy and not affect the future cuts in the sequence of the passes. another reason to use MDF is that its pretty cheap and you will need to change it out fairly regularly.
finally make sure every screw you use to attach the MDF to the base plate and the eventual material to the MDF it is extremeley important that you only ever use brass screws. the reason being they will not scatter and send shards like steel.